As you have stated your question I would have to say, no. One must open the file in some manner to access the data it contains. If you're trying to get those properties without starting solid edge application, then you might take a look at the Solid Edge Community Reader
You can store the physical properties to custom properties and read the File Properties using the readers to get the data from there.
Another way would be to use the SEFacet.dll found on the Solid Edge installation disk to read the facet data and use it in conjunction with some third-party library to calculate any physical properties like Area, Volume, etc.