Display configurations are used to control the visual display of the assembly not the physical structure, so no you cannot determine mass based on the display configuration.
Consider using alternate assemblies instead.
@Arisy Physical properties will show the mass only for selected components in an assembly if you choose. So you could display certain configs, then window select the displayed components (or select in the pathfinder) then go to mv properties.
Edit: @Arisy I see you asked in another thread about displaying weights in a draft. Unfortunately the above method is only a "one-off" and there is no property tied to it. That ability might make a nice enhancement. But I think if you want to get that value automatically in a draft you'd have to use @uk_dave's method.