I think you are overlooking some of the functionality of the Solid Edge software in relation to the Windows OS.
As for the use of part numbers, there is a reason why this is considered as the de facto standard for "labelling" parts in all industries.
If I take your simplified example from earlier...
Now, let's see what happens with numbers:
Just by using the Solid Edge properties and adding columns to the Windows Explorer I can use the part number for my file name and still very easily identify my spring or handle file by using the Solid Edge properties. This is what it looks like in Windows Explorer...
How is this difficult to [visually] locate your spring for your Volkswagen Golf Door? Yet, I still have a part number being used as the filename.
Similarly, when in the assembly you can drag and drop from Windows Explorer by quickly locating your part as shown above or you can use the Search function in the Parts Library tab to quickly locate a file based on its Solid Edge property values.
Again how is this difficult to find your correct file to reuse?
I will also add that if you make use of the Solid Edge properties, then obviously each of these properties can be added onto your Draft sheet in whatever arrangement you so desire.
Also, if you were to implement this and needed to backfill properties and rename a large number of already existing files to your new strategy, you can use the Data Prep tools to quickly and easily add properties, rename files, etc. in bulk
I'd keep the file names as is, not a huge deal. But, you're going to have to fill out the properties of that file, and have it show whatever you want on your drafts. Use the Title, Subject, Category, etc and make your drafts look like you wish.
I've been playing around with SE properties and Windows10 Explorer and the properties do not show up.
Am I missing someting?
The default Solid Edge properties should show up without any additional work on your part.
Custom Solid Edge properties will require you setting up and running the Fast Property Search in your Solid Edge Options. This will include having to define your custom properties you want to index and see in Windows Explorer within the propseed.txt file.
Following the same example I used previously you can see that I have a custom Solid Edge property called ModelYear. I have added this to my propseed.txt file, updated my Solid Edge fast PropertySearch options, indexed my file locations, and now the custom property can be seen in Windows Explorer.