Critical Bands in Human Hearing
Critical bands are used to quantify the ability of the human ear to distinguish between individual frequency tones. The human ear can hear from 20 to 20,000 Hertz, but the ability to distinguish individual tones varies as a function of frequency.
At low frequencies, the human ear can distinguish changes in frequency more easily than at high frequencies. For example, the ear can distinguish a 20 Hertz difference between 500 and 520 Hertz tones more readily than a 5000 and 5020 Hertz tones.
As a result, the ear tends to have hearing ‘bands’. These bands increase in bandwidth from low to high frequency as shown in Figure 1.
The bands are defined in a similar manner to bandpass filters, with a center frequency, and a bandwidth. The bandwidth has a lower and upper frequency defined by the point where there is a 3 dB rolloff.
There are twenty four critical bands in the human hearing range. Each band is referred to as a ‘bark’. Together the 24 bands are called the ‘bark scale’ as shown in Table 1.
The bandwidths of the critical bands are approximately constant (around 100 Hz) for frequencies below 500 Hz. Above 500 Hertz, the bandwidths increase approximately by a constant percentage value.
Critical bands are used in the calculation of several different psycho-acoustic sound metrics, including loudness, fluctuation strength, roughness, prominence ratio, and tone-to-noise-ratio.
Why do critical bands exist?
Critical bands are a phenomena created by the cochlea, the hearing organ within the inner ear. The cochlea has a logarithmic spiral shape as shown in Figure 2.
This shape governs the ability to distinguish frequencies in the ear. Different parts of the cochlea respond to different frequencies as shown in Figure 3.
If the cochlea was unrolled, and the frequency response mapped upon it, there is less space dedicated to the high frequency hearing ranges versus the low frequency hearing range.
This allocation of space gives the ear the ability to distinguish changes in low frequencies better than the high frequencies. Different parts of the basilar membrane, which is part of the cochlea, are excited by different frequencies ranges. These ranges correspond to the critical bands.
Critical Bands usage in Fluctuation Strength and Roughness
Critical bands are used in the calculation of metrics like fluctuation strength and roughness.
If two tones are in the same critical band as shown in Figure 4, they are not easily distinguishable as separate, distinct tones. Instead, the human ear perceives the separate tones to be modulating or beating.
The metrics Roughness and Fluctuation Strength describe how two or more tones create a modulation or beat frequency based on these critical bands.
Beating phenomenon occurs because the ear cannot resolve inputs whose frequency difference is smaller than the bandwidth of the critical band.
History of Critical Bands
The concept of critical bands in human hearing was first proposed by Dr. Harvey Fletcher of AT&T Bell Labs in 1933.
The formal bark scale was proposed in 1961 by Professor Eberhard Zwicker of the Technical University Munich. Zwicker named the bark scale after German physicist Heinrich Barkhausen.
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Note that the videos in this article were created with LMS Test.Lab Sound Diagnosis.