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The unsymmetrical **From-To **cycle counting keeps more information about the loading cycles than **Range-Mean **counting does, because it also stores the "orientation" of each load cycle. This is important information if you want to reconstruct a time history from a Rainflow matrix.

The Rainflow counting of LMS Tecware is a **From-To** cycle counting, and thus the default representation of the Rainflow matrices are also in **From-To** form.

However, Tecware also allows changing the representation to **Range-Mean** matrices. In fact, a **Range-Mean** histogram can always be derived from a **From-To** histogram, but not vice versa. This is because the **From-To** representation includes additional information (as mentioned above).

**Example:**

Look at the two load histories below:

They both have the same mean level and the same number of cycles, and the cycles' amplitudes are identical. The only distinctive property is the opposite polarity.

Looking at the Rainflow matrices of the two load histories, we get in the **From-To** representation:

The Rainflow matrix of "Load_up" shows *hanging* cycles, whereas the corresponding Rainflow matrix of "Load_down" shows *standing* cycles.

The denotation *hanging* and *standing* is motivated from the stress-strain-path. There, a *hanging* event is connected to the superior hysteresis branch at its upper reversal point, but a *standing* event is connected at its lower reversal point.

When a load cycle is just represented by its **range** and **mean**, the distinction between *hanging* and*standing* is not possible. Thus, the **Range-Mean** representation for both of the signals looks like this:

**Remarks:**

The desired representation of a Rainflow matrix can be set in the "RainView layout" window, which is available via the menu **Options ****à Layout** within the Rainflow matrix display.

Rainflow matrices can only be edited in the **From-To** representation.

Questions? Contact Us!

**More Fatigue and Durability links: **

- Siemens LMS Durability testing solutions
- What is a SN-Curve?
- Stress and Strain
- Calculating damage with Miner's Rule
- Calculating fatigue damage in LMS Tecware ProcessBuilder
- Measuring strain gauges with LMS Test.Lab
- Rosette strain gauges
- Rainflow Counting
- History of Fatigue

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